Negara (state) pada hakekatnya   suatu organisasi dari persekutuan hidup bersama (living together) yang merupakan  manifestasi  sifat kodrat (sifat alamiah) manusia sebagai makhluk individu dan makhluk sosial. Sehingga dapat dikatakan bahwa  sifat dasar kodrat manusia (human nature)   merupakan sifat dasar negara, dan dengan demikian  negara merupakan  manifestasi kodrat manusia secara horizontal yaitu  hubungan antara manusia dengan manusia lain untuk mencapai tujuan bersama (common goals). Pada prinsipnya  negara memiliki hubungan sebab akibat langsung (yang  bersifat kausalitas) dengan manusia karena manusia adalah sebagai pendiri negara untuk mencapai tuujuan – tujuan manusia yang telah ditetapkan bersama untuk dicapai.

Manusia sebagai warga negara hidup bersama dalam suatu daerah teritorial, berkedudukan kodrat sebagai makhluk pribadi dan sebagai makhluk Tuhan Yang Maha Esa. Dalam kapasitasnya sebagai makhluk pribadi  maka manusia  dikaruniakan kebebasan atas segala sesuatu kehendak kemanusiaannya. karunia tersebut  merupakan suatu kebebasan asasi yang menjadi prinsip – prinsip fundamental dari konsepsi Hak Asasi Manusia (Human Rights). Sedangkan dalam kedudukannya ebagai makhluk Tuhan Yang Maha Esa maka manusia  memiliki hak dan kewajiban untuk memenuhi harkat kemanusiaannya yaitu beribadah, menyembah dan patuh kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa. Manifestasi hubungan manusia dengan Tuhan (The Creator)  terwujud/teraplikasi  dalam agama (religion). Pembatasan pengertian secara tegas dapat dikatakan bahwa “NEGARA”  merupakan produk manusia sehingga merupakan hasil budaya manusia, sedangkan “AGAMA”  bersumber pada wahyu/firman/sabda  Tuhan yang sifatnya mutlak (absolut). Dogma dalam hidup keagamaan yaitu manusia memiliki hak – hak dan kewajiban yang didasarkan atas keimanan dan ketaqwaannya terhadap Tuhan selaku “PENCIPTA” manusia dan alam semesta, sedangkan dalam otoritas hegemoni negara maka manusia memiliki hak – hak dan kewajiban horisontal dalam hubungannya dengan sesama manusia dan terhadap Pemerintah (government) sebagai representasi dan pengendali negara. Berdasarkan pengertian kodrat manusia sebagai makhluk pribadi dan makhluk sosial, maka terdapat berbagai macam konsep tentang hubungan negara dengan agama, dan hal ini sangat ditentukan oleh dasar ontologis manusia (dalam konteks keberadaan atau eksistensi manusia secara konkrit).


Writer and Copy Right:
Dr. (Cand.) Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk, SH., MH.
Lecturer, Advocate and Legal Consultant
Handphone: 0818964919, 085959597919, 081213502002




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